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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(7), 7354-7375; doi:10.3390/ijerph110707354

A Decision Support System for Drinking Water Production Integrating Health Risks Assessment

1
Advanced School of Public Health, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, Rennes Cedex CS 74312, France
2
Inserm, U 1085-Institute of Research in Environmental and Occupational Health (IRSET), LERES, Rennes 1 University, Avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, Rennes Cedex CS 74312, France
3
European University of Brittany, Boulevard Laënnec, Rennes 35000, France
4
Supérieure d'aménagement du territoire et de Développement Régional, Laval University, Pavillon F.A. Savard, Ste-Foy, QC G1K 7P4, Canada
5
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK
6
Wolfson Carbon Capture Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK
7
Toxicology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3508 TD, The Netherlands
8
School of Environmental Engineering, Campus de Ker Lann, Avenue Robert Schumann, Bruz 35170, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
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Abstract

The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. View Full-Text
Keywords: decision support system; drinking water; small and medium scale water services; health risks assessment; climate change; organic carbon decision support system; drinking water; small and medium scale water services; health risks assessment; climate change; organic carbon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delpla, I.; Monteith, D.T.; Freeman, C.; Haftka, J.; Hermens, J.; Jones, T.G.; Baurès, E.; Jung, A.-V.; Thomas, O. A Decision Support System for Drinking Water Production Integrating Health Risks Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7354-7375.

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