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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(6), 5989-5999; doi:10.3390/ijerph110605989

Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012

1 School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, EH14 4AS, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS, UK 2 Owens Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia, 215 S Jackson St., Athens, GA 30602, USA 
Received: 6 March 2014 / Revised: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 29 May 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Human Health)
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Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP) in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index), urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11–2.20, P = 0.014), molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06–2.01, P = 0.023), manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09–1.86, P = 0.012), lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28–1.96, P < 0.001), tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001), antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10–1.77, P = 0.010), and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25–1.77, P < 0.001) concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00–1.62, P = 0.006), mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13–1.62, P = 0.002), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05–1.49, P = 0.014), mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.007), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.009), and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.69, P = 0.002) tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27–4.81, P = 0.011) and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12–1.79, P = 0.006) were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the causal effect cannot be established from the current study design. Elimination of environmental chemicals in humans would still need to be continued.
Keywords: chemicals; environmental health; etiology; risk factor; hypertension chemicals; environmental health; etiology; risk factor; hypertension
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Shiue, I. Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5989-5999.

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