Next Article in Journal
A Qualitative Investigation of Adolescents’ Perceived Mechanisms of Change from a Universal School-Based Depression Prevention Program
Previous Article in Journal
Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 5527-5540; doi:10.3390/ijerph110505527
Article

Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Groundwater in Three Regions of the Valencian Community (Spain)

1,2,3,†
, 1,†
, 4,†
 and 1,2,3,*
1 Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain 2 CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain 3 Mix Unit of Nutrition and Public Health, Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), 46010 Valencia, Spain 4 Public Health Laboratory, Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), 46010 Valencia, Spain These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [925 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Urban groundwater development was traditionally constrained by concerns about its quality. This study was conducted in the regions of La Ribera Alta and Ribera Baja and La Plana de Requena-Utiel of the Valencian Community (Valencia, Spain) where population density, demand for drinking water and agricultural activities are high. Groundwater bodies (GWBs) are regarded as management areas within each territory, and were used to establish protection policies. This study analyzed eleven GWBs. We used two databases with microbiological measurements from 154 wells over a 7-year period (2004–2011), risk factors and groundwater information. Wells were grouped according to frequency of microbiological contamination using E. coli measurements, category <1, or wells with low-frequency microbiological contamination and high-frequency wells or category 1–100, according to World Health Organization (WHO) quality criteria of drinking water. Of all wells, 18.12% showed high-frequency microbiological contamination with a majority distribution in the Ribera Alta region (26.98%, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between the two risk categories for flow, static level, well depth and distance from population centres. This paper reveals that the vulnerability classes established by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME) do not match the microbiological results, and that only eight wells with high-frequency contamination coincide with the high vulnerability areas.
Keywords: groundwater; E. coli; groundwater bodies; microbiological contamination; vulnerability maps groundwater; E. coli; groundwater bodies; microbiological contamination; vulnerability maps
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Llopis-González, A.; Sánchez, A.L.; Requena, P.M.; Suárez-Varela, M.M. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Groundwater in Three Regions of the Valencian Community (Spain). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5527-5540.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert