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A Qualitative Investigation of Adolescents’ Perceived Mechanisms of Change from a Universal School-Based Depression Prevention Program
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Evaluation of a School-Based Depression Prevention Program among Adolescents from Low-Income Areas: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 5294-5316; doi:10.3390/ijerph110505294

Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

1,* , 2,†
1 Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Eberhard Karls University, Schleichstrasse 4, Tübingen D-72076, Germany 2 Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent Depression Prevention)
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The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207) or psychologists (n = 213), or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226). The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention). The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects.
Keywords: school-based prevention; depression; qualification of group leaders; teachers; psychologists school-based prevention; depression; qualification of group leaders; teachers; psychologists
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Wahl, M.S.; Adelson, J.L.; Patak, M.A.; Pössel, P.; Hautzinger, M. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5294-5316.

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