Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3443-3452; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303443
Article

Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

Received: 30 December 2013; in revised form: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.
Keywords: marijuana use; adolescents; neighborhood characteristics; poverty; crime; drug problems; systematic neighborhood observations; Chile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Delva, J.; Lee, W.; Sanchez, N.; Andrade, F.H.; Grogan-Kaylor, A.; Sanhueza, G.; Ho, M. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3443-3452.

AMA Style

Delva J, Lee W, Sanchez N, Andrade FH, Grogan-Kaylor A, Sanhueza G, Ho M. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):3443-3452.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle. 2014. "Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 3: 3443-3452.

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