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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3407-3423; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303407

Identification of Health Risks of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China Using the Geographical Detector Technique

1
State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resource Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
3
School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
4
State Key Lab of Remote Sensing Science, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100094, China
5
School of Geographical Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
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Abstract

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, causing thousands of deaths among children in China over the past two decades. Environmental risk factors such as meteorological factors, population factors and economic factors may affect the incidence of HFMD. In the current paper, we used a novel model—geographical detector technique to analyze the effect of these factors on the incidence of HFMD in China. We collected HFMD cases from 2,309 counties during May 2008 in China. The monthly cumulative incidence of HFMD was calculated for children aged 0–9 years. Potential risk factors included meteorological factors, economic factors, and population density factors. Four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector) were used to analyze the effects of some potential risk factors on the incidence of HFMD in China. We found that tertiary industry and children exert more influence than first industry and middle school students on the incidence of HFMD. The interactive effect of any two risk factors increases the hazard for HFMD transmission.
Keywords: hand; foot and mouth disease; geographical detector; interactive effect; industrial structure; population density hand; foot and mouth disease; geographical detector; interactive effect; industrial structure; population density
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, J.; Wang, J.; Bo, Y.; Xu, C.; Hu, M.; Huang, D. Identification of Health Risks of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in China Using the Geographical Detector Technique. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3407-3423.

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