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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3185-3198; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303185
Article

Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries

1,* , 1,†
, 2,†,* , 1,†
 and 1,†
Received: 4 December 2013; in revised form: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
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Abstract: Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Eco-indicator 99 method, a LCA model was applied to conduct environmental impact and end-of-life treatment policy analysis for secondary batteries. This model evaluated the cycle, recycle and waste treatment stages of secondary batteries. Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries were chosen as the typical secondary batteries in this study. Through this research, the following results were found: (1) A basic number of cycles should be defined. A minimum cycle number of 200 would result in an obvious decline of environmental loads for both battery types. Batteries with high energy density and long life expectancy have small environmental loads. Products and technology that help increase energy density and life expectancy should be encouraged. (2) Secondary batteries should be sorted out from municipal garbage. Meanwhile, different types of discarded batteries should be treated separately under policies and regulations. (3) The incineration rate has obvious impact on the Eco-indicator points of Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. The influence of recycle rate on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries is more obvious. These findings indicate that recycling is the most promising direction for reducing secondary batteries’ environmental loads. The model proposed here can be used to evaluate environmental loads of other secondary batteries and it can be useful for proposing policies and countermeasures to reduce the environmental impact of secondary batteries.
Keywords: Li-ion battery; Ni-MH battery; Life Cycle Assessment; Eco-indicator 99; cycle; recycle; incineration Li-ion battery; Ni-MH battery; Life Cycle Assessment; Eco-indicator 99; cycle; recycle; incineration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, Y.; Chen, B.; Huang, K.; Wang, X.; Wang, D. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3185-3198.

AMA Style

Yu Y, Chen B, Huang K, Wang X, Wang D. Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):3185-3198.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Yajuan; Chen, Bo; Huang, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Dong. 2014. "Environmental Impact Assessment and End-of-Life Treatment Policy Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries and Ni-MH Batteries." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 3: 3185-3198.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert