Next Article in Journal
Can Merging the Roles of Public Health Preparedness and Emergency Management Increase the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Emergency Planning and Response?
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Microbial Ecology and Chemical Profile on the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) Process: A Case Study of Northern Wastewater Treatment Works, Johannesburg
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2899-2910; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302899
Article

Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women

1
,
2
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
3
 and
1,*
1 Department of Nephrology, Institute of Nephrology and Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China 2 Department of Nephrology, Zhangzhou Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Zhangzhou 363000, China 3 National Centre for Sensor Research/BioAnalytical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [229 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]

Abstract

Objective: To explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,834 community-based Southern Chinese participants from June to October 2012. Sex-specific SUA quartiles were used as follows: <345, 345–<400, 400–<468, ≥468 µmol/L in males; and <248, 248–<288, 288–<328, ≥328 µmol/L in females. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) Criteria. The association between SUA and MS was then analyzed using the STATA software. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA levels was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 4.34, p = 0.002) in men after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.64 to 5.70, p < 0.001). The OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.38 to 8.64, p = 0.008) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.16 to 3.37, p = 0.08) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 10.18, p = 0.03) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05 to 3.33, p = 0.03) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels are positively associated with the presence of MS in males and females. Higher SUA levels had a higher risk of having MS in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women.
Keywords: uric acid; metabolic syndrome; premenopausal women and postmenopausal women uric acid; metabolic syndrome; premenopausal women and postmenopausal women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Chen, S.; Shao, X.; Guo, J.; Liu, X.; Liu, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Li, B.; Deng, K.; Liu, Q.; Holthöfer, H.; Zou, H. Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2899-2910.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert