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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2899-2910; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302899
Article

Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women

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Received: 14 November 2013; in revised form: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
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Abstract: Objective: To explore the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in men, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,834 community-based Southern Chinese participants from June to October 2012. Sex-specific SUA quartiles were used as follows: <345, 345–<400, 400–<468, ≥468 µmol/L in males; and <248, 248–<288, 288–<328, ≥328 µmol/L in females. MS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) Criteria. The association between SUA and MS was then analyzed using the STATA software. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA levels was 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 4.34, p = 0.002) in men after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.64 to 5.70, p < 0.001). The OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.38 to 8.64, p = 0.008) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.16 to 3.37, p = 0.08) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women after adjusting for age, sex, history of coronary heart disease, history of stroke, current smoking, current alcohol use, physical inactivity, education status, and BMI. Further adjusting for above confounders, hypertension and diabetes, the OR for having MS in the highest versus lowest quartiles of SUA was 3.42 (95% CI, 1.15 to 10.18, p = 0.03) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.05 to 3.33, p = 0.03) in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Higher SUA levels are positively associated with the presence of MS in males and females. Higher SUA levels had a higher risk of having MS in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women.
Keywords: uric acid; metabolic syndrome; premenopausal women and postmenopausal women uric acid; metabolic syndrome; premenopausal women and postmenopausal women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Chen, S.; Shao, X.; Guo, J.; Liu, X.; Liu, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Li, B.; Deng, K.; Liu, Q.; Holthöfer, H.; Zou, H. Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2899-2910.

AMA Style

Li Y, Chen S, Shao X, Guo J, Liu X, Liu A, Zhang Y, Wang H, Li B, Deng K, Liu Q, Holthöfer H, Zou H. Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):2899-2910.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yongqiang; Chen, Shanying; Shao, Xiaofei; Guo, Jia; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Aiqun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn. 2014. "Association of Uric Acid with Metabolic Syndrome in Men, Premenopausal Women and Postmenopausal Women." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 3: 2899-2910.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert