Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2536-2549; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302536
Article

Level and Contamination Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Smaller than 100 μm Street Dust Particles from Xining, China

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Received: 29 November 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
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Abstract: Concentrations of the environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs) As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining were measured using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and their contamination levels were assessed based on enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI). The concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles from Xining are 0.1–0.8, 2.7–10.9, 0.7–5.2, 0.3–1.1, 0.6–2.5, 1.2–11.1, 0.7–1.3 and 0.4–2.9 times the background values of Qinghai soil, respectively. The calculated EF and Igeo values reveal the order Co > Pb > Cu > Zn > V > Ni > Mn > As. The EF and Igeo values of Co, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher indicating that there is considerable pollution by these elements in smaller than 100 μm street dust particles, especially for Co. The EF and Igeo of Mn, Ni and V are lower and the assessment results indicate an absence of distinct Mn, Ni and V pollution in the studied samples. The mean value of PLIsite is 1.14, indicating a slightly pollution in the whole city of Xining. The order of PLIarea for the five tested districts is Center District (CD) > East District (ED) > West District (WD) > North District (ND) > South District (SD), showing that ESEs pollution in the South District is the lightest while it is the highest in the Central District.
Keywords: street dust; environmentally sensitive elements; enrichment factor; contamination assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, N.; Lu, X.; Chao, S. Level and Contamination Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Smaller than 100 μm Street Dust Particles from Xining, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2536-2549.

AMA Style

Zhao N, Lu X, Chao S. Level and Contamination Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Smaller than 100 μm Street Dust Particles from Xining, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):2536-2549.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Ni; Lu, Xinwei; Chao, Shigang. 2014. "Level and Contamination Assessment of Environmentally Sensitive Elements in Smaller than 100 μm Street Dust Particles from Xining, China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 3: 2536-2549.


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