Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2427-2436; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302427
Article

Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal

Received: 3 January 2014; in revised form: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Removal and Recovery)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Aerobic granules were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). COD and ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 94% and 99%, respectively. The diameter, settling velocity and SVI10 of granules ranged from 2 to 5 mm, 80 to 110 m/h and about 40 mL/g, respectively. Freezing microtome images, DO concentration profiles by microelectrode, distribution of bacteria and EPS by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) show that the aerobic granules have a three-layer structure. Each layer has different thickness, character, bacteria, and DO transfer rate. A hypothesis for granule structure is proposed: the first layer, the surface of the granule, is composed mostly of heterotrophic organisms for organic matter removal, with a thickness range from 150 to 350 μm; the second layer, mostly composed of autotrophic organisms for ammonia nitrogen removal, with a thickness range from 250 to 450 μm; the third layer, located in the core of the granule, has mostly an inorganic composition and contains pores and channels.
Keywords: aerobic granules; structure; freezing microtome; dissolved oxygen; microelectrode; CLSM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Cai, A.; Wang, D.; Chen, C.; Ni, Y. Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2427-2436.

AMA Style

Li J, Cai A, Wang D, Chen C, Ni Y. Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):2427-2436.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Jun; Cai, Ang; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Chao; Ni, Yongjiong. 2014. "Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 3: 2427-2436.

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