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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(2), 2064-2076; doi:10.3390/ijerph110202064
Article

Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices

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Received: 6 November 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 10th Anniversary)
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Abstract: Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two underwent continuous disinfection with hydrogen peroxide/silver ions (0.02%) and stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.22%), respectively. After three months of applying the disinfection protocols, continuous disinfection systems were more effective than intermittent systems in reducing the microbial contamination of the water, allowing compliance with the CDC guidelines and the European Council regulatory thresholds for drinking water. P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, S. aureus and β-haemolytic streptococci were also absent from units treated with continuous disinfection. The biofilm covering the DUWLs was more extensive, thicker and more friable in the intermittent disinfection dental units than in those with continuous disinfection. Overall, the findings showed that the products used for continuous disinfection of dental unit waterlines showed statistically better results than the intermittent treatment products under the study conditions.
Keywords: dental unit waterlines; water disinfection; biofilm; peracetic acid; hydrogen peroxide; chlorine dioxide dental unit waterlines; water disinfection; biofilm; peracetic acid; hydrogen peroxide; chlorine dioxide
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dallolio, L.; Scuderi, A.; Rini, M.S.; Valente, S.; Farruggia, P.; Sabattini, M.A.B.; Pasquinelli, G.; Acacci, A.; Roncarati, G.; Leoni, E. Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2064-2076.

AMA Style

Dallolio L, Scuderi A, Rini MS, Valente S, Farruggia P, Sabattini MAB, Pasquinelli G, Acacci A, Roncarati G, Leoni E. Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(2):2064-2076.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dallolio, Laura; Scuderi, Amalia; Rini, Maria S.; Valente, Sabrina; Farruggia, Patrizia; Sabattini, Maria A.B.; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Acacci, Anna; Roncarati, Greta; Leoni, Erica. 2014. "Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 2: 2064-2076.


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