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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(12), 13047-13064; doi:10.3390/ijerph111213047

Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China

1
Department of Human Ecology, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
2
Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047, Japan
3
Hainan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 44 Haifu Road, Haikou, Hainan 57023, China
4
Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, 19B Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
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Abstract

Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead) and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper) elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599). Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine) element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper), sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males), body mass index (cadmium) and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium). The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxic elements; heavy; trace elements; urine; economic development; China toxic elements; heavy; trace elements; urine; economic development; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Inoue, Y.; Umezaki, M.; Jiang, H.; Li, D.; Du, J.; Jin, Y.; Yang, B.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Watanabe, C. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 13047-13064.

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