Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China
AbstractBackground: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead) and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper) elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599). Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine) element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper), sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males), body mass index (cadmium) and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium). The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium. View Full-Text
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Inoue, Y.; Umezaki, M.; Jiang, H.; Li, D.; Du, J.; Jin, Y.; Yang, B.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Watanabe, C. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 13047-13064.
Inoue Y, Umezaki M, Jiang H, Li D, Du J, Jin Y, Yang B, Li B, Li Y, Watanabe C. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(12):13047-13064.Chicago/Turabian Style
Inoue, Yosuke; Umezaki, Masahiro; Jiang, Hongwei; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Jin, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Li, Bai; Li, Yufeng; Watanabe, Chiho. 2014. "Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 12: 13047-13064.