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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 934-951; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100934
Article

Poultry Farm Vulnerability and Risk of Avian Influenza Re-Emergence in Thailand

1,2,3,†,* , 1,†
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 1,4
 and 1
1 Center of Excellence for Vectors and Vector Borne Diseases, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University at Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand 2 UMR_D 190 "Emergence des Pathologies Virales", IRD French Institute of Research for Development, Aix-Marseille University, EHESP French School of Public Health, Marseille 13385, France 3 Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand 4 Metabiota, Washington, DC 20009, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 9 January 2014
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Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) remains of concern as a major potential global threat. This article evaluates and discusses the level of vulnerability of medium and small-scale commercial poultry production systems in Thailand related to avian influenza virus re-emergence. We developed a survey on 173 farms in Nakhon Pathom province to identify the global level of vulnerability of farms, and to determine which type of farms appears to be more vulnerable. We used official regulations (the Good Agricultural Practices and Livestock Farm Standards regulations) as a reference to check whether these regulations are respected. The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease. Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms. Farms producing eggs (especially duck eggs) are more vulnerable than farms producing meat. Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004–2008 outbreaks in Thailand.
Keywords: HPAI H5N1; vulnerability assessment; poultry production system; Thailand HPAI H5N1; vulnerability assessment; poultry production system; Thailand
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Souris, M.; Selenic, D.; Khaklang, S.; Ninphanomchai, S.; Minet, G.; Gonzalez, J.-P.; Kittayapong, P. Poultry Farm Vulnerability and Risk of Avian Influenza Re-Emergence in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 934-951.

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