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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 507-526; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100507
Article

Analysis of Phthalate Migration to Food Simulants in Plastic Containers during Microwave Operations

1
,
2
 and
1,*
1 Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil 2 Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, FAFAR, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
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Abstract

Phthalates used as plasticizers in the manufacture of household containers can potentially be transferred to foods that are stored or heated in these plastic containers. Phthalates are endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) and are found in very low concentrations in foods, thus, highly sensitive analytical techniques are required for their quantification. This study describes the application of a new method developed for analyzing the migration of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and benzylbutylphthalate (BBP) from plastic food containers into liquid food simulants. This new method employs the technique of solid phase microextraction cooled with liquid nitrogen. The analysis was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a polyacrylate fiber. Ultrapure water was used as a simulant for liquids foods, and both new and used plastic containers were placed in a domestic microwave oven for different periods of time at different power levels. The limits of detection for DBP and BBP were 0.08 µg/L and 0.31 µg/L, respectively. BBP was not found in the samples that were analyzed. DBP was found in concentrations ranging from <LOQ to 7.5 µg/L. In general, an increase in migration was observed in containers that were used for a prolonged time, which correlated with increasing heating time.
Keywords: phthalates migration; cold solid phase microextraction; gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry; food simulant; dibutylphthalate; benzylbutylphthalate phthalates migration; cold solid phase microextraction; gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry; food simulant; dibutylphthalate; benzylbutylphthalate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Moreira, M.A.; André, L.C.; Cardeal, Z.L. Analysis of Phthalate Migration to Food Simulants in Plastic Containers during Microwave Operations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 507-526.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert