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Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 92 Bei Er Road, Heping District, Shenyang 110001, China
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Shenyang Medical College, No146 Huanghe North Street, Shenyang 110034, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2013; in revised form: 1 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 13 January 2014
Abstract: Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats.
Keywords: fluoride; oxidative stress; anthocyanins; maize purple plant pigment; rats
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhang, Z.; Zhou, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, F.; Song, Y.; Liu, S.; Xi, S. Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 1020-1033.
Zhang Z, Zhou B, Wang H, Wang F, Song Y, Liu S, Xi S. Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(1):1020-1033.
Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua. 2014. "Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 1: 1020-1033.