Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 3987-3997; doi:10.3390/ijerph10093987
Article

Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in Perimenopausal Women

1 Department of Nephronology, Institute of Nephronology and Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China 2 The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China 3 Clinical laboratory, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern, Medical University, Guangzhou 510630, China 4 National Centre for Sensor Research/BioAnalytical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2013; in revised form: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 30 August 2013
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Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in perimenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. Perimenopausal women (n = 685) were included in the study. All participants were divided into three subgroups: Group 1, 40 years old ≤ Age < 50 years old; Group 2, 50 years old ≤ Age < 60 years old; Group 3, 60 years old ≤ Age ≤ 65 years old. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.01) in the unadjusted analyses in total subjects. After adjusting the potential confounders, the odd ratios of CKD for MetS was 2.66 (95% CI 1.56 to 4.49, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between MetS and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.001) in the unadjusted analyses in Group 2. After adjusting for potential confounders, MetS was significantly associated with CKD. The odd ratios for MetS was 6.79 (95% CI 2.30 to 20.09, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. Elevated blood pressure was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 4.52 (1.28–16.02), p = 0.02). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated blood pressure and CKD (p = 0.78). Elevated fasting glucose was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 3.69 (1.10–12.38), p = 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated fasting glucose and CKD (p = 0.15). There was no relationship between abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in Group 2. These findings suggest that in perimenopausal women aged from 50 or older to 60 MetS was associated with CKD. There is no relationship between MetS and CKD in perimenopausal women aged from 40 or older to 50 and aged from 60 or older to 65.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; chronic kidney disease; perimenopausal women

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Y.; Liu, A.; Liu, X.; Shao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Li, B.; Deng, K.; Liu, Q.; Holthöfer, H.; Zou, H. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in Perimenopausal Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3987-3997.

AMA Style

Li Y, Zhao L, Chen Y, Liu A, Liu X, Shao X, Zhang Y, Wang H, Wang X, Li B, Deng K, Liu Q, Holthöfer H, Zou H. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in Perimenopausal Women. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):3987-3997.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yongqiang; Zhao, Liqin; Chen, Youming; Liu, Aiqun; Liu, Xinyu; Shao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Honglei; Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kangping; Liu, Qin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn. 2013. "Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in Perimenopausal Women." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 3987-3997.

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