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Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents
School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2013; in revised form: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
Abstract: This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills.
Keywords: family structure; family process; parental style; substance use; adolescents
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Loke, A.Y.; Mak, Y.-W. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3868-3885.
Loke AY, Mak Y-W. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):3868-3885.
Loke, Alice Y.; Mak, Yim-wah. 2013. "Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 3868-3885.