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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 3868-3885; doi:10.3390/ijerph10093868
Article

Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents

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Received: 24 May 2013; in revised form: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
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Abstract: This study explores the association of family process and peer influences with risk behaviors of adolescents. A total of 805 students were recruited from secondary schools. The results showed that adolescents who have parents who are “authoritarian” (OR = 1.856) were more likely to smoke. Adolescents who have conflicts with their parents (OR = 1.423) were more likely to drink. Those who have parents who are “permissive” were less likely to drink (OR = 0.885). Having friends who smoked (OR = 5.446) or drank (OR = 1.894), and friends’ invitation to smoke (OR = 10.455) or drink (OR = 11.825) were the dominant contributors to adolescent smoking and drinking. Interventions are needed that recognize the strength of the parent-child relationship, as well as strengthen family functioning through improved interpersonal, parenting, and monitoring skills.
Keywords: family structure; family process; parental style; substance use; adolescents family structure; family process; parental style; substance use; adolescents
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Loke, A.Y.; Mak, Y.-W. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3868-3885.

AMA Style

Loke AY, Mak Y-W. Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):3868-3885.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Loke, Alice Y.; Mak, Yim-wah. 2013. "Family Process and Peer Influences on Substance Use by Adolescents." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 3868-3885.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert