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Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden
Ruhr Graduate School in Economics (RGS Econ), University of Duisburg-Essen, Schützenbahn 70,Essen 45127, Germany
Chair of Health Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Schützenbahn 70, Essen 45127, Germany
Department of Economics and Centre for Economic Demography (CED), Lund University, Lund 22007, Sweden
Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm 10215, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 June 2013; Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Abstract: Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55–60.
Keywords: returns to schooling; education reform; mortality
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Fischer, M.; Karlsson, M.; Nilsson, T. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3596-3618.
Fischer M, Karlsson M, Nilsson T. Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(8):3596-3618.
Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese. 2013. "Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Mortality: Evidence from Sweden." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 8: 3596-3618.