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Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities
Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Department of Community & Behavioral Health, East Tennessee State University College of Public Health, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2013; in revised form: 22 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
Abstract: This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.
Keywords: sun protection; male adolescent attitudes; primary prevention of melanoma
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wickenheiser, M.; Baker, M.K.; Gaber, R.; Blatt, H.; Robinson, J.K. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3203-3216.
Wickenheiser M, Baker MK, Gaber R, Blatt H, Robinson JK. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(8):3203-3216.
Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary K.; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K. 2013. "Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 8: 3203-3216.