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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(2), 556-567; doi:10.3390/ijerph10020556
Article

Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

1
, 2
, 3
, 3
, 4
 and 1,*
1 Department of Environmental Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia 2 School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia 3 Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia 4 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Bandar Indera Mahkota, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 27 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.
Keywords: clinical solid waste; clinical solid waste management; healthcare waste; pathogenic bacteria; sharp waste clinical solid waste; clinical solid waste management; healthcare waste; pathogenic bacteria; sharp waste
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hossain, M.S.; Rahman, N.N.N.A.; Balakrishnan, V.; Puvanesuaran, V.R.; Sarker, M.Z.I.; Kadir, M.O.A. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 556-567.

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