Next Article in Journal
The Association between Splenocyte Apoptosis and Alterations of Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 mRNA Expression, and Oxidative Stress Induced by Dietary Nickel Chloride in Broilers
Previous Article in Journal
Elderly Healthcare Monitoring Using an Avatar-Based 3D Virtual Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 7299-7309; doi:10.3390/ijerph10127299
Article

Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

1,2,* , 1,†
, 1,2,3,†
 and 4,†
Received: 22 October 2013; in revised form: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [460 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1) whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2) what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.
Keywords: tobacco; retail; availability; disparities; geospatial analysis; prevalence; school tobacco; retail; availability; disparities; geospatial analysis; prevalence; school
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Chaiton, M.O.; Mecredy, G.C.; Cohen, J.E.; Tilson, M.L. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 7299-7309.

AMA Style

Chaiton MO, Mecredy GC, Cohen JE, Tilson ML. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):7299-7309.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chaiton, Michael O.; Mecredy, Graham C.; Cohen, Joanna E.; Tilson, Melodie L. 2013. "Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 7299-7309.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert