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The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis
Environmental Health, School of the Environment, Flinders University, P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia
School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia
Healthscope Pathology, South Australia, 1 Goodwood Rd., Wayville 5034, South Australia, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2013; in revised form: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Abstract: Campylobacteriosis is infection caused by the bacteria Campylobacter spp. and is considered a major public health concern. Campylobacter spp. have been identified as one of the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis. They are typically considered a foodborne pathogen and have been shown to colonise the intestinal mucosa of all food-producing animals. Much emphasis has been placed on controlling the foodborne pathway of exposure, particularly within the poultry industry, however, other environmental sources have been identified as important contributors to human infection. This paper aims to review the current literature on the sources of human exposure to Campylobacter spp. and will cover contaminated poultry, red meat, unpasteurised milk, unwashed fruit and vegetables, compost, wild bird faeces, sewage, surface water, ground water and drinking water. A comparison of current Campylobacter spp. identification methods from environmental samples is also presented. The review of literature suggests that there are multiple and diverse sources for Campylobacter infection. Many environmental sources result in direct human exposure but also in contamination of the food processing industry. This review provides useful information for risk assessment.
Keywords: campylobacteriosis; Campylobacter spp.; C. jejuni; environmental reservoirs; risk assessment
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Whiley, H.; van den Akker, B.; Giglio, S.; Bentham, R. The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5886-5907.
Whiley H, van den Akker B, Giglio S, Bentham R. The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(11):5886-5907.
Whiley, Harriet; van den Akker, Ben; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard. 2013. "The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 11: 5886-5907.