Next Article in Journal
Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention
Previous Article in Journal
Urban Ecosystem Health Assessment: Perspectives and Chinese Practice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11), 5886-5907; doi:10.3390/ijerph10115886
Review

The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis

1,* , 2,†
,
3,†
 and
1
1 Environmental Health, School of the Environment, Flinders University, P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia 2 School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia 3 Healthscope Pathology, South Australia, 1 Goodwood Rd., Wayville 5034, South Australia, Australia These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [262 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]

Abstract

Campylobacteriosis is infection caused by the bacteria Campylobacter spp. and is considered a major public health concern. Campylobacter spp. have been identified as one of the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis. They are typically considered a foodborne pathogen and have been shown to colonise the intestinal mucosa of all food-producing animals. Much emphasis has been placed on controlling the foodborne pathway of exposure, particularly within the poultry industry, however, other environmental sources have been identified as important contributors to human infection. This paper aims to review the current literature on the sources of human exposure to Campylobacter spp. and will cover contaminated poultry, red meat, unpasteurised milk, unwashed fruit and vegetables, compost, wild bird faeces, sewage, surface water, ground water and drinking water. A comparison of current Campylobacter spp. identification methods from environmental samples is also presented. The review of literature suggests that there are multiple and diverse sources for Campylobacter infection. Many environmental sources result in direct human exposure but also in contamination of the food processing industry. This review provides useful information for risk assessment.
Keywords: campylobacteriosis; Campylobacter spp.; C. jejuni; environmental reservoirs; risk assessment campylobacteriosis; Campylobacter spp.; C. jejuni; environmental reservoirs; risk assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Whiley, H.; van den Akker, B.; Giglio, S.; Bentham, R. The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Human Campylobacteriosis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 5886-5907.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert