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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(1), 278-294; doi:10.3390/ijerph10010278
Review

Transfer of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Between Intermingled Ecological Niches: The Interface Between Humans, Animals and the Environment

1,2,* , 3
 and 1,4
Received: 8 November 2012; in revised form: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
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Abstract: The use of antimicrobial agents has been claimed to be the driving force for the emergence and spread of microbial resistance. However, several studies have reported the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in populations exposed to low levels of antimicrobial drugs or even never exposed. For many pathogens, especially those organisms for which asymptomatic colonization typically precedes infection (e.g., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli), the selective effects of antimicrobial use can only be understood if we considerer all biological and environmental pathways which enable these bacteria, and the genes they carry, to spread between different biomes. This ecological framework provides an essential perspective for formulating antimicrobial use policies, precisely because it encompasses the root causes of these problems rather than merely their consequences.
Keywords: antimicrobials; resistance; humans; animals; environment antimicrobials; resistance; humans; animals; environment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

da Costa, P.M.; Loureiro, L.; Matos, A.J.F. Transfer of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Between Intermingled Ecological Niches: The Interface Between Humans, Animals and the Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 278-294.

AMA Style

da Costa PM, Loureiro L, Matos AJF. Transfer of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Between Intermingled Ecological Niches: The Interface Between Humans, Animals and the Environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(1):278-294.

Chicago/Turabian Style

da Costa, Paulo M.; Loureiro, Luís; Matos, Augusto J.F. 2013. "Transfer of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Between Intermingled Ecological Niches: The Interface Between Humans, Animals and the Environment." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 1: 278-294.


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