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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(1), 158-177; doi:10.3390/ijerph10010158
Article

Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England

Received: 23 October 2012; in revised form: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economical Determinants of Health)
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Abstract: Ecological studies of suicide and self-harm have established the importance of area variables (e.g., deprivation, social fragmentation) in explaining variations in suicide risk. However, there are likely to be unobserved influences on risk, typically spatially clustered, which can be modeled as random effects. Regression impacts may be biased if no account is taken of spatially structured influences on risk. Furthermore a default assumption of linear effects of area variables may also misstate or understate their impact. This paper considers variations in suicide outcomes for small areas across England, and investigates the impact on them of area socio-economic variables, while also investigating potential nonlinearity in their impact and allowing for spatially clustered unobserved factors. The outcomes are self-harm hospitalisations and suicide mortality over 6,781 Middle Level Super Output Areas.
Keywords: suicide; self-harm; deprivation; fragmentation; rurality; spatial; nonlinear suicide; self-harm; deprivation; fragmentation; rurality; spatial; nonlinear
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Congdon, P. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 158-177.

AMA Style

Congdon P. Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(1):158-177.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Congdon, Peter. 2013. "Assessing the Impact of Socioeconomic Variables on Small Area Variations in Suicide Outcomes in England." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 1: 158-177.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert