Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(2), 124-131; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004020124
Article

Effects of Long-Term Exposure of the Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii to a Mixture of Two Herbicides, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic Acid and Monosodium Methanearsonate, and Associated Human Health Risks

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2100, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2004; Accepted: 30 June 2004 / Published: 30 September 2004
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Abstract: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and monosodium methanearsonate are often sold in commercial mixtures. Bioconcentration studies have been performed for each of these herbicides individually, but little information exists concerning long-term exposure to a mixture of these herbicides. The following study examined the uptake of arsenic in crawfish after long-term exposure to this mixture, and the health risks associated with consumption of these crawfish. Bioconcentration and depuration experiments using a 50:50 by concentration mixture of the two herbicides, with and without surfactant, were performed to quantify how much arsenic is concentrated in the edible tissue of the crawfish. Of the three tissues (muscle, gill, and hepatopancreas) sampled hepatopancreas bioconcentrated the highest amount of arsenic. Surfactant significantly reduced this uptake but did not affect bioconcentration of arsenic into other tissues. Surfactant had no effect on depuration of arsenic from any of the tissues. Cooking lowered hepatopancreatic arsenic content, possibly as a result of structural changes in the hepatopancreas. Assessment of the human health risk associated with consuming these crawfish showed an exposure dose at the high end of consumption that was approximately twice the reference dose for arsenic. Cancer risks were averaged at approximately 7 extra tumors in a population of 10,000 and 6 extra tumors in a population of 10,000 resulting from a lifetime consumption of crawfish exposed to the herbicide mixture without and with surfactant, respectively.
Keywords: crawfish; 2; 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; monosodium methanearsonate; herbicide; mixture bioconcentration; health risk

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MDPI and ACS Style

Green, R.M.; Abdelghani, A.A. Effects of Long-Term Exposure of the Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii to a Mixture of Two Herbicides, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic Acid and Monosodium Methanearsonate, and Associated Human Health Risks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1, 124-131.

AMA Style

Green RM, Abdelghani AA. Effects of Long-Term Exposure of the Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii to a Mixture of Two Herbicides, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic Acid and Monosodium Methanearsonate, and Associated Human Health Risks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2004; 1(2):124-131.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Green, Rosalind M.; Abdelghani, Assaf A. 2004. "Effects of Long-Term Exposure of the Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii to a Mixture of Two Herbicides, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic Acid and Monosodium Methanearsonate, and Associated Human Health Risks." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 1, no. 2: 124-131.

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