Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(8), 1419-1427; doi:10.3390/md9081419

Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

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Received: 30 June 2011; in revised form: 31 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.
Keywords: carotenoid; marine invertebrates; food chain; metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maoka, T.; Akimoto, N.; Tsushima, M.; Komemushi, S.; Mezaki, T.; Iwase, F.; Takahashi, Y.; Sameshima, N.; Mori, M.; Sakagami, Y. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1419-1427.

AMA Style

Maoka T, Akimoto N, Tsushima M, Komemushi S, Mezaki T, Iwase F, Takahashi Y, Sameshima N, Mori M, Sakagami Y. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(8):1419-1427.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maoka, Takashi; Akimoto, Naoshige; Tsushima, Miyuki; Komemushi, Sadao; Mezaki, Takuma; Iwase, Fumihito; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Sameshima, Naomi; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu. 2011. "Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 8: 1419-1427.

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