Abstract: Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.
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Maoka, T.; Akimoto, N.; Tsushima, M.; Komemushi, S.; Mezaki, T.; Iwase, F.; Takahashi, Y.; Sameshima, N.; Mori, M.; Sakagami, Y. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1419-1427.
Maoka T, Akimoto N, Tsushima M, Komemushi S, Mezaki T, Iwase F, Takahashi Y, Sameshima N, Mori M, Sakagami Y. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(8):1419-1427.
Maoka, Takashi; Akimoto, Naoshige; Tsushima, Miyuki; Komemushi, Sadao; Mezaki, Takuma; Iwase, Fumihito; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Sameshima, Naomi; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu. 2011. "Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 8: 1419-1427.