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Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(8), 1419-1427; doi:10.3390/md9081419
Article

Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
, 5
, 6
, 6
, 6
 and 6,*
1 Research Institute for Production Development, 15 Shimogamo-morimoto-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0805, Japan 2 Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan 3 Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi Yamashina-Ku, Kyoto 607-8412, Japan 4 Osaka City Graduate School of Engineering and Faculty of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan 5 Kuroshio Biological Research Foundation, Nishidomari-560, Ootsuki-cho, Kochi 788-0333, Japan 6 Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nakamachi 3327-204, Nara-shi 631-8505, Nara, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2011 / Revised: 31 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
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Abstract

Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.
Keywords: carotenoid; marine invertebrates; food chain; metabolism carotenoid; marine invertebrates; food chain; metabolism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Maoka, T.; Akimoto, N.; Tsushima, M.; Komemushi, S.; Mezaki, T.; Iwase, F.; Takahashi, Y.; Sameshima, N.; Mori, M.; Sakagami, Y. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1419-1427.

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