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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 863-878; doi:10.3390/md9050863
Article

Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders

1
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1
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2
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3
 and
1,*
1 Department of Pharmacology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China 2 Marine Biology Institute, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China 3 School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2011 / Revised: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 18 May 2011
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Abstract

Black corals (BC) have been used for a long time in Chinese medicine, and may have some pharmaceutical functions when used as material for cigarette holders in southeast China. This study is aimed to investigate the bioactivities of volatile constituents in BC and to explore the folklore behind the use of BC cigarette holders (BCCHs). We extracted the volatile constituents of BC by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide (CO2-SFE), then identified and analyzed the constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 15 components were reliably identified in BC and found to be biologically active. These included triethyl phosphate, butylated hydroxytoluene, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, squalene, and cholesterol. Meanwhile 13 inorganic elements (P, Ca, Mg, S, B, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, etc.) were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS). In the bioactivity tests, the BC extract (BCE) showed a scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and hydroxyl radicals by phenanthroline-Fe (II) oxidation and moderate inhibition of Gram-positive microorganisms. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of BC, which are related to the active chemical composition, may explain the perceived benefit for cigarette smokers who use BCCHs.
Keywords: black coral cigarette holders; CO2-SFE; antioxidant activity; hydroxyl radicals; antimicrobial activity
black coral cigarette holders; CO2-SFE; antioxidant activity; hydroxyl radicals; antimicrobial activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bai, X.; Chen, Y.; Chen, W.; Lei, H.; Shi, G. Volatile Constituents, Inorganic Elements and Primary Screening of Bioactivity of Black Coral Cigarette Holders. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 863-878.

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