Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(3), 387-446; doi:10.3390/md9030387
Review

Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Relevant Secondary Metabolites. Chemical and Ecological Aspects

Received: 25 January 2011; in revised form: 18 February 2011 / Accepted: 9 March 2011 / Published: 21 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Photoprotective Compounds)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Taxonomically diverse marine, freshwater and terrestrial organisms have evolved the capacity to synthesize, accumulate and metabolize a variety of UV-absorbing substances called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as part of an overall strategy to diminish the direct and indirect damaging effects of environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Whereas the enzymatic machinery to synthesize MAAs was probably inherited from cyanobacteria ancestors via the endosymbionts hypothesis, metazoans lack this biochemical pathway, but can acquire and metabolize these compounds by trophic transference, symbiotic or bacterial association. In this review we describe the structure and physicochemical properties of MAAs, including the recently discovered compounds and the modern methods used for their isolation and identification, updating previous reviews. On this basis, we review the metabolism and distribution of this unique class of metabolites among marine organism.
Keywords: mycosporine-like amino acids; physicochemical properties; isolation; distribution; metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carreto, J.I.; Carignan, M.O. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Relevant Secondary Metabolites. Chemical and Ecological Aspects. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 387-446.

AMA Style

Carreto JI, Carignan MO. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Relevant Secondary Metabolites. Chemical and Ecological Aspects. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(3):387-446.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carreto, Jose I.; Carignan, Mario O. 2011. "Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids: Relevant Secondary Metabolites. Chemical and Ecological Aspects." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 3: 387-446.

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