Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2729-2772; doi:10.3390/md9122729

Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals

1,* email and 2email
Received: 18 October 2011; in revised form: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 1 December 2011 / Published: 16 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes with wide geographic distribution that can produce secondary metabolites named cyanotoxins. These toxins can be classified into three main types according to their mechanism of action in vertebrates: hepatotoxins, dermatotoxins and neurotoxins. Many studies on the effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a wide range of aquatic organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates, have reported acute effects (e.g., reduction in survivorship, feeding inhibition, paralysis), chronic effects (e.g., reduction in growth and fecundity), biochemical alterations (e.g., activity of phosphatases, GST, AChE, proteases), and behavioral alterations. Research has also focused on the potential for bioaccumulation and transferring of these toxins through the food chain. Although the herbivorous zooplankton is hypothesized as the main target of cyanotoxins, there is not unquestionable evidence of the deleterious effects of cyanobacteria and their toxins on these organisms. Also, the low toxin burden in secondary consumers points towards biodilution of microcystins in the food web as the predominant process. In this broad review we discuss important issues on bioaccumulation and the effects of cyanotoxins, with emphasis on microcystins, as well as drawbacks and future needs in this field of research.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; bioaccumulation; invertebrates; vertebrates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferrão-Filho, A.S.; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, B. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 2729-2772.

AMA Style

Ferrão-Filho AS, Kozlowsky-Suzuki B. Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(12):2729-2772.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio da S.; Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina. 2011. "Cyanotoxins: Bioaccumulation and Effects on Aquatic Animals." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 12: 2729-2772.

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