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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2622-2642; doi:10.3390/md9122622
Article

An Investigation into the Cytotoxic Effects of 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on Bladder Cancer Cells

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Received: 23 October 2011 / Revised: 18 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 13 December 2011
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Abstract

Active compounds from natural products have been widely studied. The anti-tumor effects of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide isolated from Formosan soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on bladder cancer cells were examined in this study. An MTT assay showed that 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide was cytotoxic to bladder female transitional cancer (BFTC) cells. We determined that the BFTC cells underwent cell death through apoptosis by flow cytometry. Due to the highly-migratory nature of the BFTC cells, the ability of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide to stop their migration was assessed by a wound healing assay. To determine which proteins were affected in the BFTC cells upon treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed. By LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified that 19 proteins were up-regulated and eight were down-regulated. Seven of the proteins were confirmed by western blotting analysis. This study reveals clues to the potential mechanism of the cytotoxic effects of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide on BFTC cells. Moreover, it suggests that PPT1 and hnRNP F could be new biomarkers for bladder cancer. The results of this study are also helpful for the diagnosis, progression monitoring and therapeutic strategies of transitional cell tumors.
Keywords: 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide; Sarcophyton crassocaule; BFTC cells; proteomic analysis 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide; Sarcophyton crassocaule; BFTC cells; proteomic analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Su, C.-C.; Su, J.-H.; Lin, J.-J.; Chen, C.-C.; Hwang, W.-I.; Huang, H.H.; Wu, Y.-J. An Investigation into the Cytotoxic Effects of 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on Bladder Cancer Cells. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 2622-2642.

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