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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2622-2642; doi:10.3390/md9122622
Article

An Investigation into the Cytotoxic Effects of 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on Bladder Cancer Cells

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3,†,*  and 3,†,*
1 Antai Medical Care Cooperation Antai Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital, Pingtung 92842, Taiwan 2 National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung 94446, Taiwan 3 Department of Beauty Science, Meiho University, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan 4 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Meiho University, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2011 / Revised: 18 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 13 December 2011
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Abstract

Active compounds from natural products have been widely studied. The anti-tumor effects of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide isolated from Formosan soft coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on bladder cancer cells were examined in this study. An MTT assay showed that 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide was cytotoxic to bladder female transitional cancer (BFTC) cells. We determined that the BFTC cells underwent cell death through apoptosis by flow cytometry. Due to the highly-migratory nature of the BFTC cells, the ability of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide to stop their migration was assessed by a wound healing assay. To determine which proteins were affected in the BFTC cells upon treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed. By LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified that 19 proteins were up-regulated and eight were down-regulated. Seven of the proteins were confirmed by western blotting analysis. This study reveals clues to the potential mechanism of the cytotoxic effects of 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide on BFTC cells. Moreover, it suggests that PPT1 and hnRNP F could be new biomarkers for bladder cancer. The results of this study are also helpful for the diagnosis, progression monitoring and therapeutic strategies of transitional cell tumors.
Keywords: 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide; Sarcophyton crassocaule; BFTC cells; proteomic analysis 13-acetoxysarcocrassolide; Sarcophyton crassocaule; BFTC cells; proteomic analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Su, C.-C.; Su, J.-H.; Lin, J.-J.; Chen, C.-C.; Hwang, W.-I.; Huang, H.H.; Wu, Y.-J. An Investigation into the Cytotoxic Effects of 13-Acetoxysarcocrassolide from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton crassocaule on Bladder Cancer Cells. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 2622-2642.

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