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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(12), 2643-2682; doi:10.3390/md9122643

Natural Products from the Lithistida: A Review of the Literature since 2000

Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution at Florida Atlantic University, Center for Marine Biomedical and Biotechnology Research, 5600 US 1 North, Fort Pierce, FL 34946, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 9 November 2011 / Accepted: 6 December 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)


Lithistid sponges are known to produce a diverse array of compounds ranging from polyketides, cyclic and linear peptides, alkaloids, pigments, lipids, and sterols. A majority of these structurally complex compounds have very potent and interesting biological activities. It has been a decade since a thorough review has been published that summarizes the literature on the natural products reported from this amazing sponge order. This review provides an update on the current taxonomic classification of the Lithistida, describes structures and biological activities of 131 new natural products, and discusses highlights from the total syntheses of 16 compounds from marine sponges of the Order Lithistida providing a compilation of the literature since the last review published in 2002.
Keywords: Lithistida; lithistid; Theonella; desmas; natural product Lithistida; lithistid; Theonella; desmas; natural product
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Winder, P.L.; Pomponi, S.A.; Wright, A.E. Natural Products from the Lithistida: A Review of the Literature since 2000. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 2643-2682.

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