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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(11), 2369-2383; doi:10.3390/md9112369

4-Acetoxydolastane Diterpene from the Brazilian Brown Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis as Antileishmanial Agent

1 Postgraduate Program in Microbiology, State University of Londrina, Highway Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445, Km 380, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, Parana, Brazil 2 Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Technological Innovation in the Development of Drugs and Cosmetics, State University of Maringa, Colombo Avenue 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringa, Parana, Brazil 3 Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Federal University of Pernambuco, CEP 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil 4 Department of Marine Biology, Federal Fluminense University, PO Box 100644, CEP 24001-970, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2011 / Revised: 1 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 11 November 2011
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Natural marine products have shown an interesting array of diverse and novel chemical structures with potent biological activities. Our study reports the antiproliferative assays of crude extracts, fraction and pure compound (4R,9S,14S)-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15),7-diene (1) obtained from brown alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis showing the antileishmanial activity. We showed that 1 had a dose-dependent activity during 72 h of treatment, exhibiting IC50 of 2.0 µg/mL, 12.0 µg/mL, and 4.0 µg/mL for promastigote, axenic amastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, respectively. A cytotoxicity assay showed that the action of the isolated compound 1 was 93.0 times less toxic to the macrophage than to the protozoan. Additionally, compound 1 induced ultrastructural changes, including extensive mitochondrial damage; decrease in Rh123 fluorescence, suggesting interference with the mitochondrial membrane potential; and lipid peroxidation in parasite cells. The use of 1 from C. cervicornis against L. amazonensis parasites might be of great interest as a future alternative to the development of new antileishmanial drugs.
Keywords: antileishmanial activity; Leishmania amazonensis; Canistrocarpus cervicornis antileishmanial activity; Leishmania amazonensis; Canistrocarpus cervicornis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Santos, A.O.; Britta, E.A.; Bianco, E.M.; Ueda-Nakamura, T.; Filho, B.P.D.; Pereira, R.C.; Nakamura, C.V. 4-Acetoxydolastane Diterpene from the Brazilian Brown Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis as Antileishmanial Agent. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 2369-2383.

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