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Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida
Marine Natural Products Research Group, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Faculty, University of Antioquia, Medellin AA 1226, Colombia
Chemical Institute of Nice, UMR 6001 CNRS, University of Nice—Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108, Nice Cedex 02, France
Program for the Study and Control of Tropical Diseases (PECET), University of Antioquia, Medellin AA 1226, Colombia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 September 2011; in revised form: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Abstract: Nine bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Verongula rigida. Two of them, aeroplysinin-1 (1) and dihydroxyaerothionin (2), are known compounds for this species, and the other seven are unknown compounds for this species, namely: 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyraminium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N, O-tetramethyltyraminium (4), purealidin R (5), 19-deoxyfistularin 3 (6), purealidin B (7), 11-hydroxyaerothionin (8) and fistularin-3 (9). Structural determination of the isolated compounds was performed using one- and two-dimensional NMR, MS and other spectroscopy data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against three parasitic protozoa: Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compounds 7 and 8 showed selective antiparasitic activity at 10 and 5 µM against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites, respectively. Cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human promonocytic cell line was also assessed.
Keywords: bromotyrosines; Verongula rigida; antiplasmodial activity; leishmanicidal activity; trypanocidal activity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Galeano, E.; Thomas, O.P.; Robledo, S.; Munoz, D.; Martinez, A. Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1902-1913.
Galeano E, Thomas OP, Robledo S, Munoz D, Martinez A. Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(10):1902-1913.
Galeano, Elkin; Thomas, Olivier P.; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana; Martinez, Alejandro. 2011. "Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 10: 1902-1913.