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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(10), 1902-1913; doi:10.3390/md9101902
Article

Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida

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Received: 6 September 2011 / Revised: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
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Abstract

Nine bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Verongula rigida. Two of them, aeroplysinin-1 (1) and dihydroxyaerothionin (2), are known compounds for this species, and the other seven are unknown compounds for this species, namely: 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyraminium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N, O-tetramethyltyraminium (4), purealidin R (5), 19-deoxyfistularin 3 (6), purealidin B (7), 11-hydroxyaerothionin (8) and fistularin-3 (9). Structural determination of the isolated compounds was performed using one- and two-dimensional NMR, MS and other spectroscopy data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against three parasitic protozoa: Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compounds 7 and 8 showed selective antiparasitic activity at 10 and 5 µM against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites, respectively. Cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human promonocytic cell line was also assessed.
Keywords: bromotyrosines; Verongula rigida; antiplasmodial activity; leishmanicidal activity; trypanocidal activity bromotyrosines; Verongula rigida; antiplasmodial activity; leishmanicidal activity; trypanocidal activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Galeano, E.; Thomas, O.P.; Robledo, S.; Munoz, D.; Martinez, A. Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1902-1913.

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