Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(10), 1902-1913; doi:10.3390/md9101902

Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida

1,* email, 2email, 3email, 3email and 1email
Received: 6 September 2011; in revised form: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Nine bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Verongula rigida. Two of them, aeroplysinin-1 (1) and dihydroxyaerothionin (2), are known compounds for this species, and the other seven are unknown compounds for this species, namely: 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyraminium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N, O-tetramethyltyraminium (4), purealidin R (5), 19-deoxyfistularin 3 (6), purealidin B (7), 11-hydroxyaerothionin (8) and fistularin-3 (9). Structural determination of the isolated compounds was performed using one- and two-dimensional NMR, MS and other spectroscopy data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against three parasitic protozoa: Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compounds 7 and 8 showed selective antiparasitic activity at 10 and 5 µM against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites, respectively. Cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human promonocytic cell line was also assessed.
Keywords: bromotyrosines; Verongula rigida; antiplasmodial activity; leishmanicidal activity; trypanocidal activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Galeano, E.; Thomas, O.P.; Robledo, S.; Munoz, D.; Martinez, A. Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1902-1913.

AMA Style

Galeano E, Thomas OP, Robledo S, Munoz D, Martinez A. Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(10):1902-1913.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Galeano, Elkin; Thomas, Olivier P.; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana; Martinez, Alejandro. 2011. "Antiparasitic Bromotyrosine Derivatives from the Marine Sponge Verongula rigida." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 10: 1902-1913.

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