Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(10), 1761-1805; doi:10.3390/md9101761

High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

1email, 1,2email and 1,*
Received: 3 August 2011; in revised form: 30 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Functional Food)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.
Keywords: sea cucumber bioactives; antioxidant nutrients; triterpene glycosides; glycosaminoglycan; functional peptides; biological activities; medicinal health functions
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [548 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 25 October 2011 11:45 CEST]
The original version is still available [422 KB, uploaded 10 October 2011 08:51 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |

MDPI and ACS Style

Bordbar, S.; Anwar, F.; Saari, N. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1761-1805.

AMA Style

Bordbar S, Anwar F, Saari N. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(10):1761-1805.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid. 2011. "High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 10: 1761-1805.

Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert