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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(1), 139-153; doi:10.3390/md9010139
Article

Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

1,* , 2
, 3
 and 4
1 Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Gambelas Campus, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal 2 Oral and Biomedical Sciences Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lisbon, 1649-003 Lisbon, Portugal 3 Centre of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Building C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal 4 Research Unit for Retrovirus and Associated Infections, Centre of Molecular Pathogenesis, Faculty of Farmacy, University of Lisbon, Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1649-019 Lisbon, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2010 / Revised: 9 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 24 January 2011
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Abstract

The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor).
Keywords: porifera; Erylus discophorus; polysaccharides; anti-HIV activity porifera; Erylus discophorus; polysaccharides; anti-HIV activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Esteves, A.I.S.; Nicolai, M.; Humanes, M.; Goncalves, J. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 139-153.

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