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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(1), 139-153; doi:10.3390/md9010139
Article

Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

1,* , 2
,
3
 and
4
1 Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Gambelas Campus, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal 2 Oral and Biomedical Sciences Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lisbon, 1649-003 Lisbon, Portugal 3 Centre of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Building C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal 4 Research Unit for Retrovirus and Associated Infections, Centre of Molecular Pathogenesis, Faculty of Farmacy, University of Lisbon, Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1649-019 Lisbon, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2010 / Revised: 9 January 2011 / Accepted: 20 January 2011 / Published: 24 January 2011
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Abstract

The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa), whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor).
Keywords: porifera; Erylus discophorus; polysaccharides; anti-HIV activity porifera; Erylus discophorus; polysaccharides; anti-HIV activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Esteves, A.I.S.; Nicolai, M.; Humanes, M.; Goncalves, J. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 139-153.

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