Abstract: In this study we demonstrate that the demosponge Suberites domuncula harbors a Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium, a Bacillus strain, termed BAC-SubDo-03. Our studies showed that Mn(II) stimulates bacterial growth and induces sporulation. Moreover, we show that these bacteria immobilize manganese on their cell surface. Comparison of the 16S rDNA sequence allowed the grouping of BAC-SubDo-03 to the Mn-precipitating bacteria. Analysis of the spore cell wall revealed that it contains an Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme. Co-incubation studies of BAC-SubDo-03 with 100 µM MnCl2 and >1 µM of CuCl2 showed an increase in their Mn(II)-oxidizing capacity. In order to prove that a multicopper oxidase-like enzyme(s) (MCO) exists in the cell wall of the S. domuncula-associated BAC‑SubDo-03 Bacillus strain, the gene encoding this enzyme was cloned (mnxG‑SubDo‑03). Sequence alignment of the deduced MCO protein (MnxG-SubDo-03) revealed that the sponge bacterium clusters together with known Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria. The expression of the mnxG-SubDo-03 gene is under strong control of extracellular Mn(II). Based on these findings, we assume that BAC-SubDo-03 might serve as a Mn reserve in the sponge providing the animal with the capacity to detoxify Mn in the environment. Applying the in vitro primmorph cell culture system we could demonstrate that sponge cells, that were co-incubated with BAC-SubDo-03 in the presence of Mn(II), show an increased proliferation potential.
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Wang, X.; Wiens, M.; Divekar, M.; Grebenjuk, V.A.; Schröder, H.C.; Batel, R.; Müller, W.E.G. Isolation and Characterization of a Mn(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus Strain from the Demosponge Suberites domuncula . Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1-28.
Wang X, Wiens M, Divekar M, Grebenjuk VA, Schröder HC, Batel R, Müller WEG. Isolation and Characterization of a Mn(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus Strain from the Demosponge Suberites domuncula . Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(1):1-28.
Wang, Xiaohong; Wiens, Matthias; Divekar, Mugdha; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A.; Schröder, Heinz C.; Batel, Renato; Müller, Werner E. G. 2011. "Isolation and Characterization of a Mn(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus Strain from the Demosponge Suberites domuncula ." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 1: 1-28.