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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(9), 2466-2479; doi:10.3390/md8092466
Article

Marine Myxobacteria as a Source of Antibiotics—Comparison of Physiology, Polyketide-Type Genes and Antibiotic Production of Three New Isolates of Enhygromyxa salina

1
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 2
, 2
, 3
 and 1,*
1 Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Bonn, Nussallee 6, 53115 Bonn, Germany 2 Institute of Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants (IMBIO), University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany 3 Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2010 / Revised: 25 August 2010 / Accepted: 1 September 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antibiotics)
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Abstract

Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1T as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005) and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006) sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).
Keywords: marine myxobacteria; Enhygromyxa salina; PKS-genes; antibacterial; antibiotic marine myxobacteria; Enhygromyxa salina; PKS-genes; antibacterial; antibiotic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Schäberle, T.F.; Goralski, E.; Neu, E.; Erol, Ö.; Hölzl, G.; Dörmann, P.; Bierbaum, G.; König, G.M. Marine Myxobacteria as a Source of Antibiotics—Comparison of Physiology, Polyketide-Type Genes and Antibiotic Production of Three New Isolates of Enhygromyxa salina. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2466-2479.

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