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Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum
Suwagh Company for Drug Delivery Systems, A Subsidiary of the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Co., Naor, Jordan
Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Petra University, Amman, Jordan
The Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company, Naor, Jordan
Jordan Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Amman, Jordan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2010; in revised form: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Abstract: Metronidazole, a common antibacterial drug, was incorporated into a hydrophilic polymer matrix composed of chitosan xanthan gum mixture. Hydrogel formation of this binary chitosan-xanthan gum combination was tested for its ability to control the release of metronidazole as a drug model. This preparation (MZ-CR) was characterized by in vitro, ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioavailability study. For comparison purposes a commercial extended release formulation of metronidazole (CMZ) was used as a reference. The in vitro drug-release profiles of metronidazole preparation and CMZ were similar in 0.1 M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Moreover, metronidazole preparation and CMZ showed a similar detachment force to sheep stomach mucosa, while the bioadhesion of the metronidazole preparation was higher three times than CMZ to sheep duodenum. The results of in vivo study indicated that the absorption of metronidazole from the preparation was faster than that of CMZ. Also, MZ-CR leads to higher metronidazole Cmax and AUC relative to that of the CMZ. This increase in bioavailability might be explained by the bioadhesion of the preparation at the upper part of the small intestine that could result in an increase in the overall intestinal transit time. As a conclusion, formulating chitosan-xanthan gum mixture as a hydrophilic polymer matrix resulted in a superior pharmacokinetic parameters translated by better rate and extent of absorption of metronidazole.
Keywords: metronidazole; chitosan; xanthan gum; bioadhesion; bioavailability
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Eftaiha, A.F.; Qinna, N.; Rashid, I.S.; Al Remawi, M.M.; Al Shami, M.R.; Arafat, T.A.; Badwan, A.A. Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 1716-1730.
Eftaiha AF, Qinna N, Rashid IS, Al Remawi MM, Al Shami MR, Arafat TA, Badwan AA. Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(5):1716-1730.
Eftaiha, Ala’a F.; Qinna, Nidal; Rashid, Iyad S.; Al Remawi, Mayyas M.; Al Shami, Munther R.; Arafat, Tawfiq A.; Badwan, Adnan A. 2010. "Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 5: 1716-1730.