Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(5), 1716-1730; doi:10.3390/md8051716

Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum

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Received: 9 March 2010; in revised form: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Metronidazole, a common antibacterial drug, was incorporated into a hydrophilic polymer matrix composed of chitosan xanthan gum mixture. Hydrogel formation of this binary chitosan-xanthan gum combination was tested for its ability to control the release of metronidazole as a drug model. This preparation (MZ-CR) was characterized by in vitro, ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioavailability study. For comparison purposes a commercial extended release formulation of metronidazole (CMZ) was used as a reference. The in vitro drug-release profiles of metronidazole preparation and CMZ were similar in 0.1 M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Moreover, metronidazole preparation and CMZ showed a similar detachment force to sheep stomach mucosa, while the bioadhesion of the metronidazole preparation was higher three times than CMZ to sheep duodenum. The results of in vivo study indicated that the absorption of metronidazole from the preparation was faster than that of CMZ. Also, MZ-CR leads to higher metronidazole Cmax and AUC relative to that of the CMZ. This increase in bioavailability might be explained by the bioadhesion of the preparation at the upper part of the small intestine that could result in an increase in the overall intestinal transit time. As a conclusion, formulating chitosan-xanthan gum mixture as a hydrophilic polymer matrix resulted in a superior pharmacokinetic parameters translated by better rate and extent of absorption of metronidazole.
Keywords: metronidazole; chitosan; xanthan gum; bioadhesion; bioavailability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eftaiha, A.F.; Qinna, N.; Rashid, I.S.; Al Remawi, M.M.; Al Shami, M.R.; Arafat, T.A.; Badwan, A.A. Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 1716-1730.

AMA Style

Eftaiha AF, Qinna N, Rashid IS, Al Remawi MM, Al Shami MR, Arafat TA, Badwan AA. Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(5):1716-1730.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eftaiha, Ala’a F.; Qinna, Nidal; Rashid, Iyad S.; Al Remawi, Mayyas M.; Al Shami, Munther R.; Arafat, Tawfiq A.; Badwan, Adnan A. 2010. "Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 5: 1716-1730.

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