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Targets and Effects of Yessotoxin, Okadaic Acid and Palytoxin: A Differential Review
Department of Biology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2010; in revised form: 9 February 2010 / Accepted: 10 February 2010 / Published: 16 March 2010
Abstract: In this review, we focus on processes, organs and systems targeted by the marine toxins yessotoxin (YTX), okadaic acid (OA) and palytoxin (PTX). The effects of YTX and their basis are analyzed from data collected in the mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis, the annelid Enchytraeus crypticus, Swiss CD1 mice and invertebrate and vertebrate cell cultures. OA and PTX, two toxins with a better established mode of action, are analyzed with regard to their effects on development. The amphibian Xenopus laevis is used as a model, and the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) as the experimental protocol.
Keywords: development; FETAX; marine toxins; invertebrate; vertebrate; cell cultures; toxin targets
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MDPI and ACS Style
Franchini, A.; Malagoli, D.; Ottaviani, E. Targets and Effects of Yessotoxin, Okadaic Acid and Palytoxin: A Differential Review. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 658-677.
Franchini A, Malagoli D, Ottaviani E. Targets and Effects of Yessotoxin, Okadaic Acid and Palytoxin: A Differential Review. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(3):658-677.
Franchini, Antonella; Malagoli, Davide; Ottaviani, Enzo. 2010. "Targets and Effects of Yessotoxin, Okadaic Acid and Palytoxin: A Differential Review." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 3: 658-677.