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Is Yessotoxin the Main Phycotoxin in Croatian Waters?
Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Šet. I. Meštrovića 63, 21000 Split, Croatia
Fondazione Centro Ricerche Marine National Reference Laboratory on Marine Biotoxins, 47042 Cesenatico, Italy
Faculty of Science, University of Split, Teslina 12, 21000 Split, Croatia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2010; in revised form: 8 February 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 5 March 2010
Abstract: With the aim of investigating whether yessotoxin (YTX) is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events in Croatian waters, three different methods were combined: a modified mouse bioassay (MBA) that discriminates YTX from other DSP toxins, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among 453 samples of mussels and seawater analyzed in 2007, 10 samples were DSP positive. Results obtained by the modified MBA method revealed that most of the samples were positive for YTX, with the exception of samples from Lim Bay (LB 1) The ELISA method also identified the presence of YTX in these samples. DSP toxin profiles showed the presence of okadaic acid (OA) in three, and YTX in four out of nine samples that were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The phytoplankton community structure pattern revealed Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein) Dodge, which was present in the water prior to and/or during toxicity events at low concentrations (80 to 1440 cells L-1), as a potential YTX producing species. It is proposed that L. polyedrum cells accumulated in mussels and the subsequently observed toxicity may be related to metabolism after ingestion, resulting in carboxy YTX as the major analog in the mussel.
Keywords: yessotoxin; okadaic acid; Lingulodinium polyedrum; Dinophysis fortii; Adriatic Sea
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Gladan, Ž.N.; Ujević, I.; Milandri, A.; Marasović, I.; Ceredi, A.; Pigozzi, S.; Arapov, J.; Skejić, S.; Orhanović, S.; Isajlović, I. Is Yessotoxin the Main Phycotoxin in Croatian Waters? Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 460-470.
Gladan ŽN, Ujević I, Milandri A, Marasović I, Ceredi A, Pigozzi S, Arapov J, Skejić S, Orhanović S, Isajlović I. Is Yessotoxin the Main Phycotoxin in Croatian Waters? Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(3):460-470.
Gladan, Živana Ninčević; Ujević, Ivana; Milandri, Anna; Marasović, Ivona; Ceredi, Alfiero; Pigozzi, Silvia; Arapov, Jasna; Skejić, Sanda; Orhanović, Stjepan; Isajlović, Igor. 2010. "Is Yessotoxin the Main Phycotoxin in Croatian Waters?" Mar. Drugs 8, no. 3: 460-470.