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Aplysinopsins - Marine Indole Alkaloids: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Ecological Significance
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848, USA
Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848, USA
Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2009; in revised form: 15 May 2009 / Accepted: 18 May 2009 / Published: 19 May 2009
Abstract: Aplysinopsins are tryptophan-derived marine natural products isolated from numerous genera of sponges and scleractinian corals, as well as from one sea anemone and one nudibranch. Aplysinopsins are widely distributed in the Pacific, Indonesia, Caribbean, and Mediterranean regions. Up to date, around 30 analogues occurring in Nature have been reported. Natural aplysinopsins differ in the bromination pattern of the indole ring, variation in the structure of the C ring, including the number and position of N-methylation, the presence and configuration of the C-8-C-1’ double bond, and the oxidation state of the 2-aminoimidazoline fragment. Aplysinopsins can also occur in the form of dimers. This review summarizes 30 years’ research on aplysinopsins. The origin, isolation sources, chemistry, bioactivity, and ecological functions of aplysinopsins are comprehensively reviewed.
Keywords: aplysinopsins; natural source; stereochemistry; bioactivity; ecological functions
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MDPI and ACS Style
Bialonska, D.; Zjawiony, J.K. Aplysinopsins - Marine Indole Alkaloids: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Ecological Significance. Mar. Drugs 2009, 7, 166-183.
Bialonska D, Zjawiony JK. Aplysinopsins - Marine Indole Alkaloids: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Ecological Significance. Marine Drugs. 2009; 7(2):166-183.
Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Zjawiony, Jordan K. 2009. "Aplysinopsins - Marine Indole Alkaloids: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Ecological Significance." Mar. Drugs 7, no. 2: 166-183.