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Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(4), 595-606; doi:10.3390/md6040595

Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals) are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

1
Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 717, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 807, Taiwan
4
Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung County, 82445 Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2008 / Revised: 13 October 2008 / Accepted: 29 October 2008 / Published: 3 November 2008
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Abstract

Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25) cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.
Keywords: Soft corals; Cladiella australis; Clavularia viridis; Klyxum simplex; Apoptosis Soft corals; Cladiella australis; Clavularia viridis; Klyxum simplex; Apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, C.-H.; Wang, G.-H.; Liaw, C.-C.; Lee, M.-F.; Wang, S.-H.; Cheng, D.-L.; Chou, T.-H. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals) are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 595-606.

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