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Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, Maryland, 20723, USA
Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 Eighth Avenue Southeast, St. Petersburg, Florida, 33712, USA
Marine and Coastal Management, Cape Town, South Africa
State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Anchorage, AK, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2008; in revised form: 3 June 2008 / Accepted: 3 June 2008 / Published: 10 June 2008
Abstract: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and nonfilter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors.
Keywords: saxitoxins; STXs; paralytic shellfish poisoning; PSP; saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning; SPFP; non traditional vectors; gastropods; crustaceans; puffer fish; public health
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Deeds, J.R.; Landsberg, J.H.; Etheridge, S.M.; Pitcher, G.C.; Longan, S.W. Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 308-348.
Deeds JR, Landsberg JH, Etheridge SM, Pitcher GC, Longan SW. Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. Marine Drugs. 2008; 6(2):308-348.
Deeds, Jonathan R.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Pitcher, Grant C.; Longan, Sara W. 2008. "Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning." Mar. Drugs 6, no. 2: 308-348.