Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Effects of in vitro Brevetoxin Exposure on Apoptosis and Cellular Metabolism in a Leukemic T Cell Line (Jurkat)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(2), 308-348; doi:10.3390/md6020308

Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, Maryland, 20723, USA
Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 Eighth Avenue Southeast, St. Petersburg, Florida, 33712, USA
Marine and Coastal Management, Cape Town, South Africa
State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Anchorage, AK, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2008 / Revised: 3 June 2008 / Accepted: 3 June 2008 / Published: 10 June 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [984 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), due to saxitoxin and related compounds, typically results from the consumption of filter-feeding molluscan shellfish that concentrate toxins from marine dinoflagellates. In addition to these microalgal sources, saxitoxin and related compounds, referred to in this review as STXs, are also produced in freshwater cyanobacteria and have been associated with calcareous red macroalgae. STXs are transferred and bioaccumulate throughout aquatic food webs, and can be vectored to terrestrial biota, including humans. Fisheries closures and human intoxications due to STXs have been documented in several non-traditional (i.e. non-filter-feeding) vectors. These include, but are not limited to, marine gastropods, both carnivorous and grazing, crustacea, and fish that acquire STXs through toxin transfer. Often due to spatial, temporal, or a species disconnection from the primary source of STXs (bloom forming dinoflagellates), monitoring and management of such non-traditional PSP vectors has been challenging. A brief literature review is provided for filter feeding (traditional) and nonfilter feeding (non-traditional) vectors of STXs with specific reference to human effects. We include several case studies pertaining to management actions to prevent PSP, as well as food poisoning incidents from STX(s) accumulation in non-traditional PSP vectors.
Keywords: saxitoxins; STXs; paralytic shellfish poisoning; PSP; saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning; SPFP; non traditional vectors; gastropods; crustaceans; puffer fish; public health saxitoxins; STXs; paralytic shellfish poisoning; PSP; saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning; SPFP; non traditional vectors; gastropods; crustaceans; puffer fish; public health
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Deeds, J.R.; Landsberg, J.H.; Etheridge, S.M.; Pitcher, G.C.; Longan, S.W. Non-Traditional Vectors for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 308-348.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top