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Mar. Drugs 2008, 6(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/md6010001
Article

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Assessment of Marine Cyanobacteria - Synechocystis and Synechococcus

1, 1, 4, 1, 4 and 1
Received: 11 October 2007 / Accepted: 14 January 2008 / Published: 22 January 2008
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Abstract

Aqueous extracts and organic solvent extracts of isolated marine cyanobacteria strains were tested for antimicrobial activity against a fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and for cytotoxic activity against primary rat hepatocytes and HL-60 cells. Antimicrobial activity was based on the agar diffusion assay. Cytotoxic activity was measured by apoptotic cell death scored by cell surface evaluation and nuclear morphology. A high percentage of apoptotic cells were observed for HL-60 cells when treated with cyanobacterial organic extracts. Slight apoptotic effects were observed in primary rat hepatocytes when exposed to aqueous cyanobacterial extracts. Nine cyanobacteria strains were found to have antibiotic activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosum and Cellulomonas uda. No inhibitory effects were found against the fungus Candida albicans and Gram-negative bacteria. Marine Synechocystis and Synechococcus extracts induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells and cause inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria. The different activity in different extracts suggests different compounds with different polarities.
Keywords: Marine Cyanobacteria; Antibiotic; Cytotoxic; Synechocystis; Synechococcus Marine Cyanobacteria; Antibiotic; Cytotoxic; Synechocystis; Synechococcus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Martins, R.F.; Ramos, M.F.; Herfindal, L.; Sousa, J.A.; Skærven, K.; Vasconcelos, V.M. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Assessment of Marine Cyanobacteria - Synechocystis and Synechococcus. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 1-11.

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