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Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Assessment of Marine Cyanobacteria - Synechocystis and Synechococcus
Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Praça, Portugal
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, CIMAR/CIIMAR, Rua dos Bragas, Portugal
Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde do Porto, Rua João de Oliveira Ramos 87, 4000-294, Portugal
Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, N-5009 Bergen, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2007; Accepted: 14 January 2008 / Published: 22 January 2008
Abstract: Aqueous extracts and organic solvent extracts of isolated marine cyanobacteria strains were tested for antimicrobial activity against a fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and for cytotoxic activity against primary rat hepatocytes and HL-60 cells. Antimicrobial activity was based on the agar diffusion assay. Cytotoxic activity was measured by apoptotic cell death scored by cell surface evaluation and nuclear morphology. A high percentage of apoptotic cells were observed for HL-60 cells when treated with cyanobacterial organic extracts. Slight apoptotic effects were observed in primary rat hepatocytes when exposed to aqueous cyanobacterial extracts. Nine cyanobacteria strains were found to have antibiotic activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosum and Cellulomonas uda. No inhibitory effects were found against the fungus Candida albicans and Gram-negative bacteria. Marine Synechocystis and Synechococcus extracts induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells and cause inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria. The different activity in different extracts suggests different compounds with different polarities.
Keywords: Marine Cyanobacteria; Antibiotic; Cytotoxic; Synechocystis; Synechococcus
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MDPI and ACS Style
Martins, R.F.; Ramos, M.F.; Herfindal, L.; Sousa, J.A.; Skærven, K.; Vasconcelos, V.M. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Assessment of Marine Cyanobacteria - Synechocystis and Synechococcus. Mar. Drugs 2008, 6, 1-11.
Martins RF, Ramos MF, Herfindal L, Sousa JA, Skærven K, Vasconcelos VM. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Assessment of Marine Cyanobacteria - Synechocystis and Synechococcus. Marine Drugs. 2008; 6(1):1-11.
Martins, Rosário F.; Ramos, Miguel F.; Herfindal, Lars; Sousa, José A.; Skærven, Kaja; Vasconcelos, Vitor M. 2008. "Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Assessment of Marine Cyanobacteria - Synechocystis and Synechococcus." Mar. Drugs 6, no. 1: 1-11.