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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050151

Conjugation of Inulin Improves Anti-Biofilm Activity of Chitosan

1,2,†
,
2,3,†
,
1,2
,
2
,
2
,
2,* and 1,2,*
1
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
2
Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Production & Formulation Engineering, PLA and State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
3
College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract

Bacteria biofilm helps bacteria prevent phagocytosis during infection and increase resistance to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium and is tightly associated with biofilm-related infections, which have led to great threat to human health. Chitosan, the only cationic polysaccharide in nature, has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities, which, however, require a relative high dosage of chitosan. Moreover, poor water solubility further restricts its applications on anti-infection therapy. Inulins are a group of polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, and are widely used in processed foods. Compared to chitosan, inulin is very soluble in water and possesses a mild antibacterial activity against certain pathogenic bacteria. In order to develop an effective strategy to treat biofilm-related infections, we introduce a method by covalent conjugation of inulin to chitosan. The physicochemical characterization of the inulin–chitosan conjugate was assayed, and the anti-biofilm activity was evaluated against S. aureus biofilm. The results indicated that, as compared to chitosan, this novel polysaccharide–polysaccharide conjugate significantly enhanced activities against S. aureus either in a biofilm or planktonic state. Of note, the conjugate also showed a broad spectrum anti-biofilm activity on different bacteria strains and low cellular toxicity to mammalian cells. These results suggested that chitosan conjugation of inulin was a viable strategy for treatment against biofilm-related infections. This finding may further spread the application of natural polysaccharides on treatments of infectious disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; biofilm; chitosan; conjugation; inulin Staphylococcus aureus; biofilm; chitosan; conjugation; inulin
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Zhang, G.; Liu, J.; Li, R.; Jiao, S.; Feng, C.; Wang, Z.A.; Du, Y. Conjugation of Inulin Improves Anti-Biofilm Activity of Chitosan. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 151.

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