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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16050145

Multiple Isoforms of Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factors and Their Antimicrobial Functions in the Ridgetail Prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda

1,2,3
,
1,2,* , 1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
2
Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Compounds from Marine Resources)
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Abstract

As a kind of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in crustacean, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. In the present study, we identified four ALF genes, EcALF2-5, from the ridgetail prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda. Tissue distribution analysis showed that EcALF2 and EcALF4 transcripts were mainly located in gill, epidermis, and stomach, while EcALF3 and EcALF5 were mainly in hemocytes. Peptides corresponding to the LPS binding domain (LBD) of EcALFs were synthesized for analyzing their antimicrobial activities. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis showed that the synthetic LBD peptides of EcALF3 and EcALF4 could inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while the synthetic LBD peptides of EcALF2 and EcALF5 showed antibacterial activity against Vibrio. Incubation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) with the synthetic LBD peptides of EcALF3, EcALF4, and EcALF5 could reduce the in vivo viral copy number in WSSV-infected prawns. After silencing of EcALFs, Vibrio exhibited a rapid proliferation in the hepatopancreas of the prawn. The present data showed the important function of different EcALFs in modulating the in vivo bacterial and viral propagation in E. carinicauda. This study will provide new clues into the disease control in aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-lipopolysaccharide factor; antimicrobial; RNA interference; flora balance; crustacean anti-lipopolysaccharide factor; antimicrobial; RNA interference; flora balance; crustacean
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Lv, X.; Li, S.; Zhang, C.; Xiang, J.; Li, F. Multiple Isoforms of Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factors and Their Antimicrobial Functions in the Ridgetail Prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 145.

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