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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 227; doi:10.3390/md15070227

The Inhibitory Activity of Luzonicosides from the Starfish Echinaster luzonicus against Human Melanoma Cells

1
Laboratory of Enzyme Chemistry, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
2
Laboratory of Marine Natural Products Chemistry, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
3
Department of Oncology, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation with Section Pneumology, Hubertus Wald-Tumorzentrum, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg 20246, Germany
4
School of Natural Sciences, Far East Federal University, Vladivostok 690922, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract

Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a rapidly increasing incidence rate. Despite recent advances in melanoma research following the approval of several novel targeted and immuno-therapies, the majority of oncological patients will ultimately perish from the disease. Thus, new effective drugs are still required. Starfish steroid glycosides possess different biological activities, including antitumor activity. The current study focused on the determination of the in vitro inhibitory activity and the mechanism of action of cyclic steroid glycosides isolated from the starfish Echinaster luzonicus—luzonicoside A (LuzA) and luzonicoside D (LuzD)—in human melanoma RPMI-7951 and SK-Mel-28 cell lines. LuzA inhibited proliferation, the formation of colonies, and the migration of SK-Mel-28 cells significantly more than LuzD. Anti-cancer activity has been ascribed to cell cycle regulation and apoptosis induction. The molecular mechanism of action appears to be related to the regulation of the activity of cleaved caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), along with Survivin, Bcl-2, p21 and cyclin D1 level. Overall, our findings support a potential anti-cancer efficacy of luzonicosides A and D on human melanoma cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: starfish; Echinaster luzonicus; steroids; cyclic glycosides; melanoma; cytotoxicity; cell cycle; apoptosis; migration starfish; Echinaster luzonicus; steroids; cyclic glycosides; melanoma; cytotoxicity; cell cycle; apoptosis; migration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Malyarenko, O.S.; Dyshlovoy, S.A.; Kicha, A.A.; Ivanchina, N.V.; Malyarenko, T.V.; Carsten, B.; Gunhild, V.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Ermakova, S.P. The Inhibitory Activity of Luzonicosides from the Starfish Echinaster luzonicus against Human Melanoma Cells. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 227.

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