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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 226; doi:10.3390/md15070226

Accumulation of Microcystin (LR, RR and YR) in Three Freshwater Bivalves in Microcystis aeruginosa Bloom Using Dual Isotope Tracer

Department of Fundamental Environment Research, Environmental Measurement & Analysis Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 404-708, Korea
Marine Ecosystem and Biological Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan 15627, Korea
Division of Polar Ocean Environment, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21900, Korea
Department of Life Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
Monitoring and Analysis Division, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, Ministry of Environment, Daejeon 34142, Korea
Department of Marine Sciences and Convergent Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins II, 2017)
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Abstract: Stable isotope tracers were first applied to evaluate the Microcystis cell assimilation efficiency of Sinanodonta bivalves, since the past identification method has been limited to tracking the changes of each chl-a, clearity, and nutrient. The toxicity profile and accumulation of MC-LR, -RR and -YR in different organs (foot and digestive organs) from the three filter-feeders (Sinanodonta woodina, Sinanodonta arcaeformis, and Unio douglasiae) were assessed under the condition of toxigenic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) blooms through an in situ pond experiment using 13C and 15N dual isotope tracers. Chl-a concentration in the manipulated pond was dramatically decreased after the beginning of the second day, ranging from 217.5 to 15.6 μg·L−1. The highest amount of MCs was incorporated into muscle and gland tissues in U. douglasiae during the study period, at nearly 2 or 3 times higher than in S.woodiana and S. arcaeformis. In addition, the incorporated 13C and 15N atom % in the U. douglasiae bivalve showed lower values than in other bivalves. The results demonstrate that U. douglasiae has less capacity to assimilate toxic cyanobacteria derived from diet. However, the incorporated 13C and 15N atom % of S. arcaeformis showed a larger feeding capacity than U. douglasiae and S. wodiana. Our results therefore also indicate that S. arcaeformis can eliminate the toxin more rapidly than U. douglasiae, having a larger detoxification capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: stable isotope tracer; U. douglasiae; S. woodiana; S. arcaeformis; toxic microcystin; M. aeruginosa stable isotope tracer; U. douglasiae; S. woodiana; S. arcaeformis; toxic microcystin; M. aeruginosa

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, M.-S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Ha, S.-Y.; Kim, B.-H.; Hwang, S.-J.; Kwon, J.-T.; Choi, J.-W.; Shin, K.-H. Accumulation of Microcystin (LR, RR and YR) in Three Freshwater Bivalves in Microcystis aeruginosa Bloom Using Dual Isotope Tracer. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 226.

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