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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 214; doi:10.3390/md15070214

Producing Novel Fibrinolytic Isoindolinone Derivatives in Marine Fungus Stachybotrys longispora FG216 by the Rational Supply of Amino Compounds According to Its Biosynthesis Pathway

1
State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China
2
College of Food Biotechnology, Shanghai Ocean University, 999 Huchenghuan Road, Shanghai 201306, China
3
Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center for Biomanufacturing, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China
4
Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Feng Lin Road, Shanghai 200032, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Received: 22 March 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genome Mining and Marine Microbial Natural Products)
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Abstract

Many fungi in the Stachybotrys genus can produce various isoindolinone derivatives. These compounds are formed by a spontaneous reaction between a phthalic aldehyde precursor and an ammonium ion or amino compounds. In this study, we suggested the isoindolinone biosynthetic gene cluster in Stachybotrys by genome mining based on three reported core genes. Remarkably, there is an additional nitrate reductase (NR) gene copy in the proposed cluster. NR is the rate-limiting enzyme of nitrate reduction. Accordingly, this cluster was speculated to play a role in the balance of ammonium ion concentration in Stachybotrys. Ammonium ions can be replaced by different amino compounds to create structural diversity in the biosynthetic process of isoindolinone. We tested a rational supply of amino compounds ((±)-3-amino-2-piperidinone, glycine, and l-threonine) in the culture of an isoindolinone high-producing marine fungus, Stachybotrys longispora FG216. As a result, we obtained four new kinds of isoindolinone derivatives (FGFC4–GFC7) by this method. Furthermore, high yields of FGFC4–FGFC7 confirmed the outstanding production capacity of FG216. Among the four new isoindolinone derivatives, FGFC6 and FGFC7 showed promising fibrinolytic activities. The knowledge of biosynthesis pathways may be an important attribute for the discovery of novel bioactive marine natural products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Stachybotrys; isoindolinone biosynthesis; genome mining; amino compound; fibrinolytic activity Stachybotrys; isoindolinone biosynthesis; genome mining; amino compound; fibrinolytic activity
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Yin, Y.; Fu, Q.; Wu, W.; Cai, M.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, Y. Producing Novel Fibrinolytic Isoindolinone Derivatives in Marine Fungus Stachybotrys longispora FG216 by the Rational Supply of Amino Compounds According to Its Biosynthesis Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 214.

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