Next Article in Journal
Compositional Characteristics and In Vitro Evaluations of Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Properties of Crude Extracts of Fucoidan Prepared from Compressional Puffing-Pretreated Sargassum crassifolium
Previous Article in Journal
Production of Chitin from Penaeus vannamei By-Products to Pilot Plant Scale Using a Combination of Enzymatic and Chemical Processes and Subsequent Optimization of the Chemical Production of Chitosan by Response Surface Methodology
Previous Article in Special Issue
Marine Fish Proteins and Peptides for Cosmeceuticals: A Review
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(6), 182; doi:10.3390/md15060182

Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense

1
Department of Experimental Medicine—University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Napoli, Italy
2
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Piano d’Accio, 64100 Teramo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Se-Kwon Kim and Peer B. Jacobson
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1592 KB, uploaded 20 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

A variety of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) constitute a prominent commodity in fisheries and aquacultures, but are also crucial in order to preserve our ecosystem’s complexity and function. Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, are relevant bred species, and their global farming maintains a high incremental annual growth rate, representing a considerable proportion of the overall fishery activities. Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders; therefore by filtering a great quantity of water, they may bioaccumulate in their tissues a high number of microorganisms that can be considered infectious for humans and higher vertebrates. Moreover, since some pathogens are also able to infect bivalve mollusks, they are a threat for the entire mollusk farming industry. In consideration of the leading role in aquaculture and the growing financial importance of bivalve farming, much interest has been recently devoted to investigate the pathogenesis of infectious diseases of these mollusks in order to be prepared for public health emergencies and to avoid dreadful income losses. Several bacterial and viral pathogens will be described herein. Despite the minor complexity of the organization of the immune system of bivalves, compared to mammalian immune systems, a precise description of the different mechanisms that induce its activation and functioning is still missing. In the present review, a substantial consideration will be devoted in outlining the immune responses of bivalves and their repertoire of immune cells. Finally, we will focus on the description of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified and characterized in bivalve mollusks. Their structural and antimicrobial features are also of great interest for the biotechnology sector as antimicrobial templates to combat the increasing antibiotic-resistance of different pathogenic bacteria that plague the human population all over the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine bivalve mollusks; antimicrobial peptides; bivalve immune system marine bivalve mollusks; antimicrobial peptides; bivalve immune system
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zannella, C.; Mosca, F.; Mariani, F.; Franci, G.; Folliero, V.; Galdiero, M.; Tiscar, P.G.; Galdiero, M. Microbial Diseases of Bivalve Mollusks: Infections, Immunology and Antimicrobial Defense. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 182.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top